Starting around 1725 in Europe, gilded papier-mâché began to appear as a low-cost alternative to similarly treated plaster or carved wood in architecture. Henry Clay of Birmingham, England, patented a process for treating laminated sheets of paper with linseed oil to produce waterproof panels in 1772. These sheets were used for building coach door panels as well as other structural uses. Theodore Jennens patented a process in 1847 for steaming and pressing these laminated sheets into various shapes, which were then used to manufacture trays, chair backs, and structural panels, usually laid over a wood or metal armature for strength. The papier-mâché was smoothed and lacquered, or finished with a pearl shell finish. The industry lasted through the 19th century. Russia had a thriving industry in ornamental papier-mâché. A large assortment of painted Russian papier-mâché items appear in a Tiffany & Co. catalog from 1893. Martin Travers the English ecclesiastical designer made much use of papier-mâché for his church furnishings in the 1930s.
The discovery of Makemake's little moon increases the parallels between Pluto and Makemake. This is because both of the small icy worlds are already known to be well-coated in a frozen shell of methane. Furthermore, additional observations of the little moon will readily reveal the density of Makemake--an important result that will indicate if the bulk compositions of Pluto and Makemake are similar. "This new discovery opens a new chapter in comparative planetology in the outer Solar System," Dr. Marc Buie commented in the April 26, 2016 Hubble Press Release. Dr. Buie, the team leader, is also of the Southwest Research Institute. The influence of the moon on the Zodiac is a study in and of itself. When you are aware of your sun sign, you can use information about the cycles of the moon and the moon signs to determine the best time to make decisions or avoid certain activities. The moon signs are named the same as the Zodiac, but do not coincide with them. Moon in Earth (Taurus, Virgo or Capricorn) will be in their element when they are making money, adding to their resources or making their home cosy, comfortable or beautiful. They cannot just wish or believe, they need to have and to hold the tangible or to make progress in order to feel secure. They react in a grounded, steady and matter- of-fact manner, which can turn into stubbornness and a reluctance to change or let go. They are very much at home when working or being productive in their practical way.