In France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which lasts four years from the Sixième (“sixth,” the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 6) to the Troisième (“third,” the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 9), accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 15. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a Brevet des collèges if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects (French, history/ geography, mathematics, science/physics/chemistry), but also on a series of skills completed during the last year and on oral examinations (e. g. about cross-subjects themes they work on the latest years, the fourth year of collège). They can then enter high school (called lycée), which lasts three years from the Seconde to the Terminale until the baccalauréat, and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study.
Scientists, seekers of truth by definition, would approach the subject from the null point of view, attempting to prove, in this case, that NASA DID go to the moon. Because the hoax theorists are taking the opposite tack, and because they stretch their case based solely on the photographic evidence, one must suspect both their academic pedigree and their intentions.
The Kuiper Belt. Dark, distant, and cold, the Kuiper Belt is the remote domain of an icy multitude of comet nuclei, that orbit our Sun in a strange, fantastic, and fabulous dance. Here, in the alien deep freeze of our Solar System's outer suburbs, the ice dwarf planet Pluto and its quintet of moons dwell along with a cornucopia of others of their bizarre and frozen kind. This very distant region of our Star's domain is so far from our planet that astronomers are only now first beginning to explore it, thanks to the historic visit to the Pluto system by NASA's very successful and productive New Horizons spacecraft on July 14, 2015. New Horizons is now well on its way to discover more and more long-held secrets belonging to this distant, dimly lit domain of icy worldlets.
For those craters smaller than 30 kilometers in diameter, he discovered impacts both increased and decreased porosity in the upper layer of the lunar crust.