Before piped mains supplies, water for firefighting had to be kept in buckets and cauldrons ready for use by ‘bucket-brigades’ or brought with a horse-drawn fire-pump. From the 16th century, as wooden mains water systems were installed, firefighters would dig down the pipes and drill a hole for water to fill a “wet well” for the buckets or pumps. This had to be filled and plugged afterwards, hence the common US term for a hydrant, ‘fireplug’. A marker would be left to indicate where a ‘plug’ had already been drilled to enable firefighters to find ready-drilled holes. Later wooden systems had pre-drilled holes and plugs. When cast-iron pipes replaced the wood, permanent underground access points were included for the fire fighters. Some countries provide access covers to these points, while others attach fixed above-ground hydrants – the first cast iron ones patented in 1801 by Frederick Graff, then chief-engineer of the Philadelphia Water Works. Invention since then has targeted problems such as tampering, freezing, connection, reliability etc .
In September 2015, a new study provided an important missing piece to the intriguing puzzle of how our Moon came to be the lovely object that we see today. The Moon in the Birth Chart. The Moon is a very important planet in the Birth Chart as it is from this that we operate from through childhood and thus it becomes our foundation. Although we grow towards our Sun (our own 'mind') in adulthood, the Moon is a 'feeling, reflective' energy that picks up and stores early messages and experiences. Many of our behavioural and emotional problems can be uncovered by examining the role of Moon in the Natal Chart. The Moon informs and represents the way we habitually respond and react throughout life. It denotes our instinctive behaviour and the sign it is in describes its innate quality, whereas the house reflects the environmental influence. Any aspect to the Moon shows how it reacts. If for example it has a connection to Mars, then it may be more assertive in having its needs met. Moon with Venus will emphasise its female or creative quality and Moon in aspect to Mercury may be able to express its feeling in some communicative way.. We earthlings love to look up at the moon. So much does the moon enamor us; we write movies, songs and poems by the droves that contain the name of the earth's super satellite. A case in point is the fact that one of the biggest selling record albums of all time is Pink Floyd's "Dark Side of the Moon."